The web of our life is of a mingled yarn, good and ill together.
William Shakespeare, 1564 - 1616

The links below are based on the third edition of Paul Martin Lester's book, Visual Communication: Images with Messages, now in its fifth edition.

sense, select, and perceive
light | eye, retina, and the brain
visual cues: color, form, depth, and movement | visual theories
visual persuasion | media stereotypes
visual analysis perspectives
typography | graphic design | informational graphics | cartoons
photography | motion pictures | television and video | computers | world wide web
the more you know; the more you see

return to the top

Chapter 1: To sense. To select. To perceive.
John Ruskin

CNN World Trade Center News Site

Blade Runner (1982)

Aldous Huxley's Life and Works

Retina Disease

Bates Natural Vision Method

MFA Programs

return to the top

Chapter 2: Light
Clarence John Laughlin

JB Colson

Optics Workshop



Nobel Prizes

Michelson's Speed of Light Experiment

Sir Isaac Newton

Max Planck

Albert Einstein

James Clerk Maxwell

Heinrich Hertz



return to the top

Chapter 3: The Eye, the Retina, and the Brain
Samuel Taylor Coleridge Archive

The Retina

The Interactive Eye Site

Evolution of Color Vision

Color Deficiency


Powder (1995)

The Whole Brain Atlas

The Primary Visual Cortex

The Hippocampus

return to the top

Chapter 4: What the Brain Sees: Color, Form, Depth, and Movement
Suzanne Langer

Biography of David H. Hubel

Biography of Torsten N. Wiesel

Color Theory

Leonardo da Vinci

Visual Literacy


Floral Industry and Color





Magic Eye Images

Pablo Picasso


return to the top

Chapter 5: The Sensual and Perceptual Theories of Visual Communication

Gestalt Theory

Gestalt Therapy and Gestalt Psychology


Principles of Eye Tracking

Julian Hochberg and Constructivism

Semiotics for Beginners

Biography of Ferdinand de Saussure

Biography of Charles Sanders Peirce

Dr. Strangelove (1964)

Cognitive Perception

CNN Headline News

return to the top

Chapter 6: Visual Persuasion in Advertising, Public Relations, and Journalism
Bill Moyers

United Colors of Benetton


The Institute for Propaganda Analysis

Influence At Work

Persuasion and Influence

Advertising Age

Welcome to PRSA

Society of Professional Journalists

The Drudge Report

Miami Herald on Eliān Gonzālez

return to the top

Chapter 7: Images that Injure: Pictorial Stereotypes in the Media
Walter Lippmann

Biography of Jerry Lewis

Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA)

National Center on Disability and Journalism


Irish in America

Latino Stereotypes

Jewish/Israel Index USA

African American Stereotypes

Women and the Web

GLAAD Online

Native American Culture and Stereotypes

Text for Media Stereotype Slide Show

The King Center

return to the top

Section 4 Introduction: The Media Through Which We See
David Lodge

A Personal Perspective Example

Rick Williams Photography

A Historical Perspective Example

A Technical Perspective Example

An Ethical Perspective Example

Deni Elliott

Journalism Ethics

Categorical Imperative



Aristotle's Golden Mean

The Golden Rule

John Rawls

Veil of Ignorance

Cultural Perspective Example

Critical Perspective Example

return to the top

Chapter 8: Typography
Jonathan Hoefler

Johannes Gutenberg

The Gutenberg Bible

Oral and Scribal Culture History

Cuneiform Writing System

Egyptian Hieroglyphics

Chinese Language


Greek History

Roman History

The History of Printing

The History of Typography

Typofile Magazine

Zine Resources

return to the top

Chapter 9: Graphic Design
Saul Bass

The Movie Poster Page

The Man with the Golden Arm (1955)

Casino (1995)

Psycho (1960)

Why Man Creates (1968)

Quaker Oats Company


Sacred Places: Lascaux, France

Cave Paintings


Joseph Niepce

History of Halftones

History of Desktop Publishing

Online Publishing

Graphic Design Tips

Art Nouveau

Henri De Toulouse-Lautrec

Will Bradley

Maxfield Parrish


Marcel Duchamp

Sergei Eisenstein

George Herriman


Andy Warhol

Robert Frank

Peter Max

Hip Hop Links

De Stijl

Mario Garcia

Piet Mondrian

Stefan Lorant

Paul Klee

Laszlo Moholy-Nagy

Milton Glaser

Marshall McLuhan


Cybertown: Virtual Reality Community

return to the top

Chapter 10: Informational Graphics
Edward Tufte

9-11 Infographics

USA Today

Allen Neuharth


Edmond Halley


The Weather Channel

George Rorick

USA Today Weather Map

Sumerian Mythology

Greek Cartography

Chinese Maps

William Playfair

Dr. John Snow


The Geographer's Craft Project

return to the top

Chapter 11: Cartoons
Richard Nixon

Matt Groening

"Life in Hell"

Tracey Ullman

James L. Brooks

Sam Simon

"The Simpsons"

Itchy and Scratchy

Egyptian Artwork


The Carracci Siblings

Al Hirschfeld

William Hogarth

Benjamin Franklin

James Gillray

Napoleon Caricatures

Thomas Nast

Bill Mauldin

Herbert Block

Paul Conrad

Sigmund Freud

The New Yorker

Charles Addams

The Chauvet Cave

Papyrus Paintings

Bayeux Tapestry

"The Yellow Kid"

William Randolph Hearst

Pulitzer Prize History


Robert Crumb

"Doonesbury" Electronic Town Hall

"The New Batman and Superman Adventures"

MAD Magazine

MAUS by Art Spiegelman

Manga Gallery

Animation History

Animation World Magazine

Voyage to the Moon (1902)


Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)

Fantasia (1940)

Beauty and the Beast (1991)

A Bug's Life (1998)

Chuck Jones

Friz Freleng

Tex Avery

Looney Tunes

William Hanna

Joseph Barbera

The Flintstones (1994)

Anime Gallery

Willis H. O'Brien

Ray Harryhausen

George Pal

Henry Selick

Will Vinton

Nick Park

Terry Gilliam

Dennis Muren

Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988)

Cool World (1992)

Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)

Jurassic Park (1993)

Titanic (1997)

Antz (1998)

Toy Story 2 (1999)

Disney Store

The Pogo Page

"The PJs" (1999)

"Futurama" (1999)

"Dilbert" (1999)

"South Park" (1997)

Shrek (2001)

Monsters, Inc. (2001)

return to the top

Chapter 12: Photography
George Bernard Shaw

Photography Search in Yahoo!

Dorothea Lange

Documenting America


Migrant Mother Talks about the Great Depression

Photography History

A Timeline of Photography

Joseph Ni?pce

The Digital Daguerreian Archive

Henry Fox Talbot


Color Materials

Richard Maddox

Eadweard Muybridge

George Eastman

Edwin Land


Photography from a Technical Perspective

Photojournalism Ethics Columns

Faking Images in Photojournalism

Urban Legends

Julia Margaret Cameron

Mathew Brady

Richard Avedon

The Two Ways of Life

Oscar Rejlander

Henry Robinson

Timothy O'Sullivan

Ansel Adams

Alfred Stieglitz

Jacob Riis

Lewis Hine

Robert Frank

Mary Ellen Mark

Digital Video Information

Digital Literacy

Virtual Photography

return to the top

Chapter 13: Motion Pictures
Movies and Film on Yahoo!

Citizen Kane (1941)

Herman J. Mankiewicz

Robert Wise

Vernon L. Walker

Bernard Herrmann

Gregg Toland

Hearst Castle

Orson Welles

The Mercury Theater on the Air: "War of the Worlds" (1938)

Thomas A. Edison

Auguste Lumire

Louis Lumire

Georges Melies

Edwin S. Porter

The Great Train Robbery (1903)

D. W. Griffith

The Birth of a Nation (1915)

Mack Sennett

Hal Roach

Sergei M. Eisenstein

Charlie Chaplin

Buster Keaton

Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle

Academy Awards

The Jazz Singer (1927)

A Star Is Born (1937)

Nosebleed Update

Zoolander (2001)

The OMNIMAX Theater

Search the Internet Movie Database

return to the top

Chapter 14: Television and Video
Meg Greenfield

Rodney King and the Los Angeles Riots


Television Criticism

Television History

Allen Dumont

Philo Farnsworth

Felix the Cat

Federal Communications Commission (FCC)

Hollywood Blacklisting

NOAA Satellite Transmission Schedules

Ampex Corporation

Broadcast Organizations

National Cable and Telecommunications Association

Al Jazeera Satellite Channel

Fiber Optic Cable


return to the top

Chapter 15: Computers
Arthur C. Clarke

Timeline of Computer Graphics and Animation

Lucent Technologies

2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)

Futureworld (1976)

Star Wars (1977)

Tron (1982)

Laurie Anderson

Labyrinth (1986)

Jim Henson

Jurassic Park (1993)

Dragonheart (1996)

Titanic (1997)

James Cameron

Roger Corman

The Abyss (1989)

Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)

Computing History

Charles Babbage

Herman Hollerith

IBM History

Microsoft History

Apple History

Apple Computers


Iomega Zip Drive

Pentium 4

Athlon XP Processor

"Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty"

Teledildonics Links

"Virtual Valerie" #1 Sketch

Dvorak Keyboard

The Future for Computers

return to the top

Chapter 16: World Wide Web
Bill Atkinson Photographs

America Online

AOL Time Warner, Inc.

AT&T Corporation

Walt Disney Company

Bertelsmann Media Worldwide

General Electric

The News Corporation, Ltd.

Sony Corporation

Viacom, Inc.

Vivendi Universal


Dr. Vannevar Bush




History of the Internet

The History of the World Wide Web

What is the World Wide Web?




Internet Explorer


The Electronic Frontier Foundation


Cyber Patrol

Surf Watch

World Wide Web Consortium

Web Accessibility Software

Nielsen Net Ratings

Rotten Dot Com

California Virtual University

Real Cities Network

Charlotte Observer Online

Los Angeles Times



return to the top

Chapter 17: The More You Know, The More You See
T. S. Eliot

Joe Rosenthal's Flag Raising Picture

Tom Franklin's Flag Raising Picture

Light on Yahoo!

return to the top