A Brief Quiz on Chapter 9
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1Empirical work refers to quantitative research.

2Empirical research is invited when the problem question and hypothesis focus on current descriptions and relationships, and when the data are quantitative in nature.

3Survey research is empirical study that uses questionnaires or interviews to discover descriptive characteristics of phenomena.

4Questionnaire instructions and questions should attempt to influence respondents to be unduly helpful by attempting to anticipate what researchers want to hear or find out.

5Direct questions ask for obvious reports whereas indirect questions ask respondents to react in ways that imply information.

6Open ended questions are useful when respondents have information on the topic and when respondents may not be motivated to spend time in the project.

7Reliability is the degree to which a measure actually measures what is claimed.

8If a measure is valid, it is reliable, too.

9Check questions ask the same question twice at different locations in the questionnaire, usually once positively worded and once negatively worded.

10Survey research provides information about both causal and non-causal relationships.

11Interviews are invited when it is important to record information, such as a respondent's manner and nonverbal actions, that might be lost in the questionnaire method.

12Funnel questions are useful for follow-up questioning in interviews.

13Traditional network analysis is a method that obtains individuals' reports of their communication activities with others for the purpose of observing and describing the flow of information in a particular organizational system.

14Focus groups are undertaken as an alternative to general survey work.

15Network analyses beyong the traditional include semantic networks, networks among groups, among organizations, and among nations.