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Attenuation refers to a reduction in the size of observed effects because of errors in measurement.
Ratio level measurement is distinguished form other measurement levels since distances between measured items are assessed as matters of degree.
Reliability coefficients are expressed as correlations (ranging from 0 to 1), which index the consistency of measures.
Factors that contribute to the unreliability of a test are social pressures to conform created by the researchers.
Alternative forms testing is a method to validate a measurement instrument.
Split half reliability involves: constructing different forms of the same test from a common pool of measurement items, giving different forms to the same group of people, and assessing consistency.
K-R 20 (Kuder-Richardson formula 20) used when researchers want to determine the reliability of a measure that has items that are scored as "correct" and "incorrect" answers.
Construct validity is the degree to which a measure predicts known groups in which the construct must exist.
In semantic differential-type scales, statements are composed that express a point of view on an issue, and then subjects are asked to indicate their responses on scales ranging from Agree Strongly to Disagree Strongly
Guttman scalogram methods are composed of statements for which specific point values have been assigned.
To compose original measures in research one should examine conceptual definitions and search scholarly discussions, decide on a format, secure feedback from a small sample, and get evidence of reliablity and validity fo athe measure.
When numbers are used as substitutes for names or categories, nominal level measurement is used.