A Brief Quiz of Material from Chapter 5
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1Operational definitions are highly precise conceptual definitions.

2In writing, internal organizers are phrases that preview, summarize, and provide transitions between main points.

3Exemplary literature reviews include all material related to the subject.

4A prospectus is a complete proposal for a research activity to be completed in the future, including discussion of possible study findings.

5The 'known to unknown' summary strategy reviews literature by considering what is known in general categories, followed by increasingly specific categories that are related to the topic.

6The heuristic merit of research is its ability to lead scholars to new inventions, ideas, and research avenues.

7Researchers argue that new research is invited by showing how new work would fill a gap in knowledge, solve practical problems, or extend and improve on past research.

8Most high quality scholarship is written from an outline.

9In research, opinion information is not permitted to play a role.

10Primary sources of information are obtained from individuals who have firsthand experience with the events reported.

11Reports consist of participants' accounts of what took place.

12Reports are tested by asking if the reporter has biases.

13Whereas statistics are quantitative reports that describe the population, parameters are quantitative reports based on observations in a sample.

14The credibility of statistical information is tested by asking if the statistics are recent, the sampling properly completed, and the measures accurate.

15Lay opinions are derived from people who are experts in the field of inquiry.

16Induction is a reasoning process in which a valid conclusion necessarily follows from premises.

17Frequently found in the conclusion sections of research articles, the argument from definition reasons that things do or do not belong in a certain class.

18Often used in the sections of studies dedicated to the rationale and to the conclusion, a literal analogy makes a comparison of something to a hypothetical situation.

19Causal arguments reason that a given factor is responsible for producing certain other results. These lines of argument are properly used only in the discussion sections of experiments or long-term historical studies.

20The categorical syllogism starts with an "allness" statement and is the chief reasoning tool of the literature review and the discussion section argument or research articles.

21The conditional syllogism is the basis of the logic of hypothesis testing.